Common Eye Diseases & Conditions


Cataracts– develop as a progressive cloudiness in the eye’s lens, affecting vision. Common in aging, they can also result from UV exposure, smoking, injuries, diabetes, and certain medications. Symptoms include blurred vision, glare, haloes, and poor night vision, worsening without treatment. Depending on the cataract’s severity, updated glasses may temporarily help; however, surgical removal is often necessary, replacing the cloudy lens with an artificial one to restore vision. Cityscape Eye Care conducts dilated fundus exams to thoroughly evaluate lens opacification.

Glaucoma– Progressive, painless, irreversible damage to the optic nerve and loss of nerve fibers causing visual field defects in vision, especially in the periphery. The eye produces & drains a fluid called aqueous humor, which circulates within the eye. The eye also has its own internal fluid drainage system to ensure the fluid is not being accumulated.
When the fluid in the eye flows outward too slowly or is blocked, or is producing too much aqueous, there will be an increase of pressure, which causes irreversible damage to the optic nerve.

The optic nerve is a delicate nerve structure at the back of the eye, and is responsible for transmitting visual images from the eye to the brain.

Damage to the optic nerve due to raised eye pressure is called glaucoma.

Early detection of glaucoma via routine examination is the key to limiting damage to the eyes, as this disease is slow, progressive and usually asymptomatic until later stages.

At Cityscape Eye Care, the use of optic nerve imaging through a retinal nerve fiber layer OCT and peripheral vision testing through visual field analysis, we are able to detect changes in the Optic Nerve early on.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)– The leading cause of deterioration in visual acuity among people 50 years of age and older. This common eye condition is age-related and most common in the Caucasian population. There is a strong correlation with smoking and UV radiation exposure.
This eye disease affects the macula, which is an important part of the eye responsible for central vision and colour vision allowing a person to see fine details such as, identifying faces, reading, and driving.

There are 2 forms of ARMD: Dry and Wet (exudative).

An accumulation of drusen (yellow fatty deposits) beneath the retina results in changes in central vision.

In more severe forms (wet ARMD) abnormal growth of blood vessels occurs, and eventually, the vessels leak fluid into the retina, negatively affecting vision and causing blind spots, scotomas.

If left untreated, scar tissue may develop, which will permanently harm the macula and could result in blindness.

There are common symptoms such as, blurry or reduced visual acuity, decreased colour vision, blank areas in the central field of vision, and optical distortion of lines and objects.

If ARMD is found in its early stages, there are treatments available that can help patients stabilize and even regain some lost sight. Cityscape Eye Care utilizes macular OCT imaging to detect such changes as early as possible.

Diabetic Retinopathy- A progressive disease of the retina caused by uncontrolled diabetes and other comorbidities. There are two types of diabetic retinopathy: non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).
Both types result in significant and damage to the retina and surrounding blood vessels over time, which can cause blindness or retinal detachment if left untreated.

In the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, there are no symptoms. Often, there are no symptoms in the most advanced stages, also. Annual checkups are essential when a patient has diabetes, whether type 1 or type 2.

Eyelid Styes (Chalazion and Internal Hordeolum)- A red, non- or painful bump on the eyelid often caused by blockage, infection, or inflammation of a specific gland.
These eyelid glands can sometimes become clogged by bacteria, oil, and dead skin cells. It is best to get a diagnosis and clear instructions of treatment.

Dry Eye Syndrome (DES)- Dried, red, tired, irritated, inflammed eyes can be caused by numerous factors such as aging, certain medical conditions, certain medication use, environment (computer use, cell phones, TV or reading) and climate.
Symptoms include dry eyes, tired and heavy eyes, itchy or gritty eyes, reddened eyes, blurry vision, foreign body sensation and general irritation/discomfort.

Dry eye syndrome can be very unpleasant; however, these symptoms can be treated effectively if their exact causes are known.

Instead of purchasing over the counter eye drops to simply mask the problem, it would be best to make an appointment and have the root cause identified to determine a suitable treatment method. At Cityscape Eye Care, we carry non-preservative artificial tears for patient comfort.

Retinal Detachment- considered an ocular emergency, is when the retina detaches from the back of the eye.
There are many causes, some of which include and are not limited to: posterior vitreous detachment, blunt trauma to eye or surrounding structures, diabetes, inflammation and other eye surgeries.

If not diagnosed and treated immediately, there is a potential for permanent vision loss.

Symptoms may include new onset of floaters, black specks, flashes of light, a veil or curtain coming down or even sudden loss of vision.

At Cityscape Eye Care, we perform thorough dilated fundus examinations to rule out retinal detachments.

Thyroid Eye Disease- Also known as Graves eye disease, this is an autoimmune condition causing swelling and expansion of the muscles and fat tissue inside the eye socket, pushing the eyeball forward and making the eyelids retract.
In worst cases, it can cause so much pressure in the eye socket that it compromises the blood supply to the optic nerve putting a person at risk for blindness.

Most of the time, this condition can be treated without surgery; however, if the blood supply to the optic nerve is being compressed, surgical intervention may be needed.

Symptoms include: Irritation, redness or inflammation, tearing, dryness, bulging of eyes (proptosis) and double vision (diplopia).

Amblyopia/strabismus (lazy or crossed eyes)- A common cause of visual impairment in children. It happens when the vision in one of the eyes has not developed fully with the brain.
This could happen when a child is cross-eyed, meaning the eyes do not align in the same direction (strabismus).

Misalignment makes it difficult for the eyes to work together and will result in each eye, sending a different image to the brain.

To avoid confusion, the brain learns to suppress images from the weaker eye and favours the dominant eye.

There are also other possible causes of amblyopia in one eye. It is possible for amblyopia to develop in both eyes.

It is essential to catch and treat the underlying cause early to improve vision quality in the future and this is a main reason children should have routine eye exams annually. This may include dispensing prescription eye wear, patching and prisms in eye glasses.

Refractive Errors- Are vision problems that happen when the shape or power of the eye prevents light from focusing accurately on the retina.

Some common causes could be the shape of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or structural problems due to ageing.

Four main types of refractive errors:

1.    Myopia AKA nearsightedness
2.    Hyperopia AKA farsightedness
3.    Astigmatism, due to a non-spherical cornea
4.    Presbyopia, which causes focus problems due to reduced elasticity of the lens

Eye glasses and contact lenses are amongst the common treatments for correcting refractive errors and restoring 20/20 vision. At Cityscape Eye Care, we house a variety of different frame sizes and styles to cater to every age group and face structure.


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